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- Adenine : A base incorporated into DNA and RNA and part of an energy carrier, as ATP, in metabolism.
- Adenosine : One of the nucleotides used to build RNA; the deoxy form is used to make DNA.
- Alanine cycle : A way for muscle cells to use amino acids as energy sources, while transferring to the liver the expensive task of dealing with the ammonium released from those amino acids.
- Anabolism : Biological processes that build larger molecules from smaller ones, and increase the size of bones, organs and muscles.
- Antineoplastic agent : Drug that prevents the development, maturation, or spread of neoplastic cells.
- Archaea : A major group of numerous microorganisms fundamentally different from the bacteria and including many chemolithotrophs and extremophiles.
- Astrocyte : A non-neural cell type in the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates.
- Beta oxidation : The process by which fatty acids, in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules, are broken down in the mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the Krebs Cycle.
- Biosynthesis : The production of chemical metabolites by living systems.
- Catabolism : The metabolic process that breaks down molecules into smaller units.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Cellular respiration : A series of metabolic processes by which living cells produce energy through the oxidation of organic substances.
- Coenzyme A : A coenzyme notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
- Cryobiology : The study of living organisms, organs, biological tissues or biological cells at low temperatures.
- Cyclic AMP : An adenine nucleotide that is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Facultative anaerobic organism : An organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
- Flavin : A tricyclic biochemical based on pteridine that is derived from the vitamin riboflavin.
- Gluconeogenesis : Formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, and the glycerol portion of fats.
- Glucose-6-phosphate : (G6P), is glucose that has been phosphorylated on carbon 6. The conversion from glucose to G6P is the first step of glycolysis for energy production in cells.
- Glycolysis : A biochemical pathway by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate.
- Heterocycle : A cyclized chemical with nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur within the ring structure.
- Lactic fermentation : A form of fermentation that occurs in animal cells in the absence of oxygen.
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