Amplification (psychology)

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Amplification is to amplify physical symptoms based on psychological factors such as anxiety or depression: "somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. What may be a minor 'twinge' or mild 'sorenes' to the stoic, is a severe, consuming pain to the amplifier."[1]

Psychological state has been documented to effect the course of upper respiratory tract infection,[2][3] post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome,[4] and musculoskeletal pain.[5]

Amplification is not recognized by the American Psychiatric Association.

The Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SAS) has been validated to measure amplification.[1] The scale contains four items measured with a 5 item Likert scale:

  1. Sudden loud noises really disturb me
  2. I'm very uncomfortable when I'm in a place that is too hot or too cold
  3. I can't stand pain as well as most people can
  4. I find I'm often aware of various things happening in my body
  5. I'm quick to sense the hunger contractions in my stomach

Amplification is related to alexithymia. Amplification may also contribute to multiple-drug intolerance (if the adverse effects that are reported are non-specific).[6]

Type A personality and depression may be risk factors for amplification:


  1. 1.0 1.1 Barsky AJ, Goodson JD, Lane RS, Cleary PD (1988). "The amplification of somatic symptoms". Psychosomatic medicine 50 (5): 510-9. PMID 3186894[e]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Imboden JB, Canter A, Cluff LE (1961). "Convalescence from influenza. A study of the psychological and clinical determinants". Arch. Intern. Med. 108: 393-9. PMID 13717585[e]
  3. Lane RS, Barsky AJ, Goodson JD (1988). "Discomfort and disability in upper respiratory tract infection". Journal of general internal medicine : official journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine 3 (6): 540-6. DOI:10.1007/BF02596095. PMID 3230456. Research Blogging.
  4. Thabane M, Kottachchi DT, Marshall JK (2007). "Systematic review and meta-analysis: the incidence and prognosis of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 26 (4): 535-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03399.x. PMID 17661757. Research Blogging.
  5. Mallen CD, Peat G, Thomas E, Dunn KM, Croft PR (2007). "Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review". The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 57 (541): 655-61. PMID 17688762[e]
  6. Davies SJ, Jackson PR, Ramsay LE, Ghahramani P (2003). "Drug intolerance due to nonspecific adverse effects related to psychiatric morbidity in hypertensive patients". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (5): 592-600. PMID 12622606[e]
  7. Jenkins CD, Jono RT, Stanton BA (1996). "Predicting completeness of symptom relief after major heart surgery". Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.) 22 (2): 45-57. PMID 8879456[e]
  8. Fields KB, Delaney M, Hinkle JS (1990). "A prospective study of type A behavior and running injuries". The Journal of family practice 30 (4): 425-9. PMID 2324695[e]