James Buchanan (1791-1868) was an American politician and the 15th President of the United States of America, serving from 1857 to 1861. He was born in Pennsylvania and was the only president in the history of the United States that was never married. Prior to his presidency, he once served in House of Representatives, the U.S. Senate and as the Secretary of State under President James K. Polk. He was a member of the Democratic Party.
Buchanan's presidency was primarily known for the escalating conflict between the Northern and Southern factions. In 1860, the Republican Party candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected to replace Buchanan. Lincoln was against slavery and advocated Northern interests, angering the South, which sought to succeed from the Union. Buchanan was unable to halt the succession and the subsequent outbreak of American Civil War.
Buchanan also oversaw the United States federal government forces against Utah during the Utah War of 1857 to 1858, a war which the federal troops defeated the Utahan force led by Brigham Young.