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- Cognitive science : The scientific study either of mind or intelligence and includes parts of cognitive psychology, linguistics and computer science.
- Linguistics : The scientific study of language.
- Cognitive linguistics : School of linguistics that understands language creation, learning, and usage as best explained by reference to human cognition in general.
- Anthropology : The holistic study of humankind; from the Greek words anthropos ("human") and logia ("study").
- Psychology : The study of systemic properties of the brain and their relation to behaviour.
- Artificial intelligence : The field of science and engineering involved with the study, design and manufacture of systems that exhibit qualities such as adaptivity, complexity, goal pursuit, reactiveness to surroundings, and others that are commonly attributed to "intelligence."
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from nonliving systems.
- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Autopoiesis : The concept of a living system as autonomously self-organizing within its physical boundary, generating and continually regenerating its own components, thereby maintaining the molecular and supramolecular hierarchy of interacting networks that self-organize and self-perpetuate the system.
- Semantic primes : Words universal to all Earth's natural languages, their meaning ordinarily learned during development solely through the way contemporaries use them, serving as a basic set of words by which lexicographers could, in principle, define without circularity all the other words in a given language's lexicon.