Nobel Prize in Physics/Catalogs

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An informational catalog, or several catalogs, about Nobel Prize in Physics.
Year Laureate CountryReasons
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Germany For the discovery of X-rays
1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz Netherlands For the discovery of influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena
Pieter Zeeman Netherlands
1903 Henri Becquerel France For researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel
Pierre Curie France
Marie Curie France
1904 Lord Rayleigh UK For investigations of the densities of gases and for discovery of argon
1905 Philipp Lenard Germany For his work on cathode rays
1906 J.J. Thomson UK For work on the conduction of electricity by gases
1907 Albert A. Michelson USA For optical precision instruments and spectroscopic and metrological investigations
1908 Gabriel Lippmann France For method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference
1909 Guglielmo Marconi Italy For the development of wireless telegraphy
Ferdinand Braun Germany
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Netherlands For work on the equation of state for gases and liquids
1911 Wilhelm Wien Germany For discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat
1912 Gustaf Dalén Sweden For automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Netherlands For investigations of matter at low temperatures which led to the production of liquid helium
1914 Max von Laue Germany For discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals
1915 William Bragg UK For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays
Lawrence Bragg UK
1916 No award
1917 Charles Glover Barkla UK For discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements
1918 Max Planck Germany For the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta
1919 Johannes Stark Germany For discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields
1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume Switzerland For precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys
1921 Albert Einstein Germ.+Switz. For services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect
1922 Niels Bohr Denmark For investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them
1923 Robert A. Millikan USA For work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect
1924 Manne Siegbahn Sweden For discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy
1925 James Franck Germany For discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom
Gustav Hertz Germany
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin France For work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for discovery of sedimentation equilibrium
1927 Arthur H. Compton USA For discovery of Compton scattering
Charles T.R. Wilson UK For paths of charged particles made visible by condensation of vapour
1928 Owen Willans Richardson UK For work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of Richardson's law
1929 Louis de Broglie France For his discovery of the wave nature of electrons
1930 Sir Venkata Raman India For his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect
1931 No award
1932 Werner Heisenberg Germany For the creation of quantum mechanics
1933 Erwin Schrödinger Austria For the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory
Paul A.M. Dirac UK
1934 No award
1935 James Chadwick UK For the discovery of the neutron
1936 Victor F. Hess Austria For discovery of cosmic radiation
Carl D. Anderson USA For discovery of the positron
1937 Clinton Davisson USA For experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals
George Paget Thomson UK
1938 Enrico Fermi Italy For new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and nuclear reactions
1939 Ernest Lawrence USA For the cyclotron and artificial radioactive elements
1940 No award
1941 No award
1942 No award
1943 Otto Stern USA For molecular ray method and discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi USA For resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Austria For the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle
1946 Percy W. Bridgman USA For apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and discoveries in the field of high pressure physics
1947 Edward V. Appleton UK For physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the Appleton layer
1948 Patrick M.S. Blackett UK For development of the Wilson cloud chamber and discoveries in nuclear physics and cosmic radiation
1949 Hideki Yukawa Japan For prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces
1950 Cecil Powell UK For development of photographic method of studying nuclear processes and discoveries regarding mesons
1951 John Cockcroft UK For their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles
Ernest T.S. Walton Ireland
1952 Felix Bloch USA For development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements
E. M. Purcell USA
1953 Frits Zernike Netherlands For phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope
1954 Max Born UK For research in quantum mechanics, for statistical interpretation of wavefunction
Walther Bothe Germany For the coincidence method
1955 Willis E. Lamb USA For the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum
Polykarp Kusch USA For the magnetic moment of the electron
1956 William B. Shockley USA For semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect
John Bardeen USA
Walter H. Brattain USA
1957 Chen Ning Yang China For parity laws in elementary particle physics
Tsung-Dao Lee China
1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov USSR For discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
Il'ja M. Frank USSR
Igor Y. Tamm USSR
1959 Emilio Segrè USA For their discovery of the antiproton
Owen Chamberlain USA
1960 Donald A. Glaser USA For the invention of the bubble chamber
1961 Robert Hofstadter USA For electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for the structure of the nucleons
Rudolf Mössbauer Germany For resonance absorption of γ radiation and discovery of the Mössbauer effect
1962 Lev Landau USSR For theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium
1963 Eugene Wigner USA For theory of atomic nucleus, elementary particles, discovery of symmetry principles
Maria Goeppert-Mayer USA For their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure
J. Hans D. Jensen Germany
1964 Charles H. Townes USA For quantum electronics, oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle
Nicolay G. Basov USSR
Aleksandr M. Prokhorov USSR
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Japan For quantum electrodynamics, with consequences for the physics of elementary particles
Julian Schwinger USA
Richard P. Feynman USA
1966 Alfred Kastler France For discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms
1967 Hans Bethe USA For theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars
1968 Luis Alvarez USA For elementary particle physics, discovery of resonance states, hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis
1969 Murray Gell-Mann USA For discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions
1970 Hannes Alfvén Sweden For magnetohydro-dynamics and applications plasma physics
Louis Néel France For antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, applications in solid state physics
1971 Dennis Gabor UK For the holographic method
1972 John Bardeen USA For theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory
Leon N. Cooper USA
Robert Schrieffer USA
1973 Leo Esaki Japan For tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors
Ivar Giaever USA
Brian D. Josephson UK For predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, the Josephson effects
1974 Martin Ryle UK For radio astrophysics: Ryle for the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for role in the discovery of pulsars
Antony Hewish UK
1975 Aage N. Bohr Denmark For collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus
Ben R. Mottelson Denmark
James Rainwater USA
1976 Burton Richter USA For work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind
Samuel C.C. Ting USA
1977 Philip W. Anderson USA For theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
Sir Nevill F. Mott UK
John H. van Vleck USA
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa USSR For discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics
Arno Penzias USA For discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation
Robert Woodrow Wilson USA
1979 Sheldon Glashow USA For theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, the prediction of the weak neutral current
Abdus Salam Pakistan
Steven Weinberg USA
1980 James Cronin USA For discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons
Val Fitch USA
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen USA For laser spectroscopy
Arthur L. Schawlow USA
Kai M. Siegbahn Sweden For high-resolution electron spectroscopy
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson USA For his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions
1983 Subramanyan Chandrasekhar USA For physical processes in the structure and evolution of the stars
William A. Fowler USA For nuclear reactions in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe
1984 Carlo Rubbia Italy For contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction
Simon van der Meer Netherlands
1985 Klaus von Klitzing Germany For the discovery of the quantized Hall effect
1986 Ernst Ruska Germany For electron optics, and design of the first electron microscope
Gerd Binnig Germany For the scanning tunneling microscope
Heinrich Rohrer Switzerland
1987 J. Georg Bednorz Germany For break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials
K. Alex Müller Switzerland
1988 Leon M. Lederman USA For neutrino beam method, the doublet structure of the leptons, and the discovery of the muon neutrino
Melvin Schwartz USA
Jack Steinberger USA
1989 Norman F. Ramsey USA For separated oscillatory fields method, the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks
Hans G. Dehmelt USA For ion trap technique
Wolfgang Paul Germany
1990 Jerome I. Friedman USA For deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, the quark model in particle physics
Henry W. Kendall USA
Richard E. Taylor Canada
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes France For generalization of methods for simple systems to more complex forms of matter, to liquid crystals and polymers
1992 Georges Charpak France For particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber
1993 Russell A. Hulse USA For the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation
Joseph H. Taylor Jr. USA
1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse Canada For neutron spectroscopy
Clifford G. Shull USA For neutron diffraction technique
1995 Martin L. Perl USA For the discovery of the tau lepton
Frederick Reines USA For detection of the neutrino
1996 David M. Lee USA For discovery of superfluidity in helium-3
Douglas D. Osheroff USA
Robert C. Richardson USA
1997 Steven Chu USA For methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji France
William D. Phillips USA
1998 Robert B. Laughlin USA For discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations
Horst L. Störmer Germany
Daniel C. Tsui USA
1999 Gerardus 't Hooft Netherlands For elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics
Martinus J.G. Veltman Netherlands
2000 Zhores I. Alferov Russia For work on ICT, semiconductor heterostructures opto-electronics
Herbert Kroemer Germany
Jack S. Kilby USA For work on ICT, for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit
2001 Eric A. Cornell USA For Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
Wolfgang Ketterle Germany
Carl E. Wieman USA
2002 Raymond Davis Jr. USA For astrophysics, the detection of cosmic neutrinos
Masatoshi Koshiba Japan
Riccardo Giacconi USA For astrophysics, the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources
2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov USA+Russia For theory of superconductors and superfluids
Vitaly L. Ginzburg Russia
Anthony J. Leggett UK+USA
2004 David J. Gross USA For discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
H. David Politzer USA
Frank Wilczek USA
2005 Roy J. Glauber USA For quantum theory of optical coherence
John L. Hall USA For laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique
Theodor W. Hänsch Germany
2006 John C. Mather USA For discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
George F. Smoot USA
2007 Albert Fert France For the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance
Peter Grünberg Germany
2008 Yoichiro Nambu Japan For mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics
Makoto Kobayashi Japan For origin of the broken symmetry, existence of at least three families of quarks
Toshihide Maskawa Japan
2009 Charles K. Kao China+UK For transmission of light in fibers for optical communication
Willard S. Boyle USA For invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor
George E. Smith USA
2010 Andre Geim Russia+Netherlands For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene
Konstantin Novoselov Russia+UK
2011 Saul Perlmutter USA For the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae
Brian P. Schmidt Australia+USA
Adam G. Riess USA
2012 Serge Haroche France For ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems
David J. Wineland USA
2013 François Englert Belgium For the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider
Peter Higgs UK